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Monday, December 11, 2006

Few Types of Hernia

abdominal hernia, herniation of omentum, intestine, or some other internal body structure through the abdominal wall; called also ventral h. and laparocele.

acquired hernia, one brought on by lifting or by a strain or other injury.

abdominal hernia, herniation of omentum, intestine, or some other internal body structure through the abdominal wall; called also ventral h. and laparocele.

acquired hernia, one brought on by lifting or by a strain or other injury.

hernia adipo¢sa, fat h.

axial hiatal hernia, sliding hiatal h.

Barth's hernia, hernia of loops of intestine between the serosa of the abdominal wall and that of a persistent vitelline duct.

Béclard's hernia, femoral hernia through the saphenous opening.

Birkett's hernia, synovial h.

Bochdalek's hernia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia due to failure of closure of the pleuroperitoneal hiatus (foramen of Bochdalek).

cecal hernia, an intestinal hernia containing all or part of the ce*****.

cerebral hernia, hernia ce¢rebri, protrusion of the brain substance through the skull, through either a cranium bifidum, the foramen magnum, or the tentorial notch. See encephalocele and see tonsillar herniation and transtentorial herniation, under herniation.

Cloquet's hernia, pectineal h.

complete hernia, one in which the sac and its contents have passed through the defect.

concealed hernia, hernia not perceptible on palpation.

congenital hernia, that which exists at birth, most commonly scrotal or umbilical.

Cooper's hernia, a femoral hernia with additional tracts into the scrotum, toward the labium majus, and toward the obturator foramen.

crural hernia, femoral h.

diaphragmatic hernia, herniation of the abdominal or retroperitoneal structures into the thorax.

diaphragmatic hernia, congenital, congenital protrusion of the abdominal viscera into the thorax through an opening resulting from defective development of the pleuroperitoneal membrane, most often incomplete closure of the pleuroperitoneal hiatus (foramen of Bochdalek); it often leads to fatal pulmonary hypoplasia.

direct hernia, direct inguinal hernia, see inguinal h.

diverticular hernia, Littre's h.

dry hernia, a hernia in which the sac and its contents have become intimately adherent to each other.

duodenojejunal hernia, Treitz's h.

encysted hernia, scrotal or oblique inguinal hernia in which the bowel, enveloped in its own proper sac, passes into the tunica vaginalis in such a way that the bowel has three coverings of peritoneum; called also Hey's h.

epigastric hernia, an abdominal hernia through the linea alba above the navel.

external hernia, indirect inguinal hernia; see inguinal h.

extrasaccular hernia, sliding h.

fat hernia, hernial protrusion of properitoneal fat through the abdominal wall; called also h. adiposa.

femoral hernia, hernia of a loop of intestine into the femoral canal. Called also crural h. and femorocele.

foraminal hernia, hernia through the epiploic foramen.

gastroesophageal hernia, paraesophageal h.

Grynfeltt hernia, lumbar hernia through Lesshaft's space (Grynfeltt's triangle).

Hesselbach's hernia, hernia of a loop of intestine through the cribriform fascia.

Hey's hernia, encysted h.

hiatal hernia, hiatus hernia, herniation of an abdominal organ, usually the stomach, through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. It occurs in two major anatomic patterns: the sliding hiatal h. (type I), which is the more common type, and the paraesophageal h. (type II).

Holthouse's hernia, an inguinal hernia which has turned outward into the groin.

incarcerated hernia, hernia of intestine that cannot be returned or reduced by manipulation; it may or may not become strangulated. Called also irreducible h.

incisional hernia, an abdominal hernia at the site of a previously made incision.

incomplete hernia, one which has not passed entirely through the defect.

indirect hernia, indirect inguinal hernia, see inguinal h.

infantile hernia, oblique inguinal hernia behind the funicular process of the peritoneum.

inguinal hernia, hernia of an intestinal loop into the inguinal canal. An indirect inguinal hernia (external or oblique hernia) leaves the abdomen through the deep inguinal ring, and passes down obliquely through the inguinal canal, lateral to the inferior epigastric artery. A direct inguinal hernia (internal hernia) emerges between the inferior epigastric artery and the edge of the rectus muscle.

inguinocrural hernia, inguinofemoral hernia, a combined inguinal and femoral hernia.

inguinoproperitoneal hernia, hernia that is partly inguinal and partly properitoneal; called also Krönlein's h.

inguinosuperficial hernia, interstitial hernia which passes through the internal inguinal ring, the inguinal canal, and the external inguinal ring, but at this point is deflected upward and outward so as to lie upon the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle.

intermuscular hernia, an interstitial hernia which lies between one or another of the fascial or muscular planes of the abdomen.

internal hernia, direct inguinal hernia; see inguinal h.

interparietal hernia, intermuscular h.

intersigmoid hernia, hernia of the intestine through the intersigmoid fossa.

interstitial hernia, an intestinal hernia in which a loop lies between two layers of the abdominal wall.

intra-abdominal hernia, intraperitoneal hernia, a congenital anomaly of intestinal positioning, occurring within the abdomen, in which a portion of bowel protrudes through a defect in the peritoneum or, as a result of abnormal rotation of the intestine during embryonic development, becomes trapped in a sac of peritoneum.

hernia of the iris, protrusion of a part of the iris.

irreducible hernia, incarcerated h.

ischiatic hernia, sciatic h.

ischiorectal hernia, perineal h.

Krönlein's hernia, inguinoproperitoneal h.

labial hernia, herniation of intestine into a labium majus.

labial hernia, posterior, vaginolabial h.

Laugier's hernia, a femoral hernia perforating Gimbernat's ligament.

levator hernia, pudendal h.

Littre's hernia, protrusion of a Meckel's diverticulum; called also diverticular h.

lumbar hernia, herniation of omentum or intestine in the lumbar region, through Lesshaft's space (Grynfeltt hernia) or the trigonum lumbale (Petit's hernia).

mesenteric hernia, herniation of intestine through an opening in the mesentery.

mesentericoparietal hernia, mesocolic h.

mesocolic hernia, an intra-abdominal hernia in which the small intestine rotates incompletely during development and becomes trapped within the mesentery of the colon. Called also paraduodenal h.

Morgagni's hernia, congenital retrosternal diaphragmatic hernia, with extrusion of tissue into the thorax through the foramen of Morgagni.

oblique hernia, indirect inguinal hernia; see inguinal h.

obturator hernia, herniation of intestine or other abdominal organs through the obturator foramen.

omental hernia, an abdominal hernia containing omentum.

ovarian hernia, hernial protrusion of an ovary.

pantaloon hernia, inguinal hernia in which there are both direct and indirect hernial sacs.

paraduodenal hernia, mesocolic h.

paraesophageal hernia, hiatal hernia in which part or almost all of the stomach protrudes through the hiatus into the thorax to the left of the esophagus, with the gastroesophageal junction remaining in place. Called also type II hiatal hernia.

parahiatal hernia, paraesophageal h.

paraperitoneal hernia, hernia of the bladder in which only a part of the protruded bladder is covered by the peritoneum of the sac.

parasaccular hernia, sliding h.

parietal hernia, Richter's h.

pectineal hernia, a type of femoral hernia that enters the femoral canal and then perforates the aponeurosis of the pectineus muscle; called also Cloquet's h.

perineal hernia, protrusion of abdominal viscera into the perineum.

Petit's hernia, lumbar hernia through the trigonum lumbale (Petit's triangle).

prevascular hernia, a hernia in the femoral sheath, anterior to the femoral vessels.

properitoneal hernia, an interstitial hernia which is located between the parietal peritoneum and the transversalis fascia.

pudendal hernia, herniation of intestine into the pudendum, having passed through a rent in the levator muscle and its fascia; called also levator h.

pulsion hernia, a hernia produced by sudden increase of intra-abdominal pressure.

rectovaginal hernia, rectocele.

reducible hernia, one that may be returned by manipulation.

retrocecal hernia, protrusion of the intestine into a pouch behind the ce*****; called also Rieux's h.

retrograde hernia, herniation of two loops of intestine, the portion of intestine between the two loops lying within the abdominal cavity. Called also w h.

retroperitoneal hernia, Treitz's h.

retrovascular hernia, a femoral hernia that passes within the femoral sheath but exits posterior to the femoral vessels; called also Serafini's h.

Richter's hernia, an incarcerated or strangulated hernia in which only a portion of the circumference of the bowel wall is involved; called also parietal h.

Rieux's hernia, retrocecal h.

Rokitansky's hernia, protrusion of a sac of mucous membrane or of the peritoneum through separated muscular fibers of the intestine.

rolling hernia, paraesophageal h.

sciatic hernia, hernia through the greater or lesser sciatic foramen. Called also ischiatic h. and ischiocele.

scrotal hernia, an inguinal hernia which has descended into the scrotum.

Serafini's hernia, retrovascular h.

sliding hernia, hernia of the ce***** (on the right) or the sigmoid colon (on the left) in which the intestinal wall forms a portion of the hernial sac, the remainder of the sac being formed by the parietal peritoneum. Called also slip h. or slipped h.

sliding hiatal hernia, hiatal hernia in which the upper stomach and the cardioesophageal junction protrude upward into the posterior mediastinum; the protrusion, which may be fixed or intermittent, is partially covered by a peritoneal sac. Called also axial hiatal h. and type I hiatal h.

slip hernia, slipped hernia, sliding h.

spigelian hernia, abdominal hernia through the linea semilunaris.

strangulated hernia, an incarcerated hernia that is so tightly constricted as to compromise the blood supply of the contents of the hernial sac, leading to gangrene.

synovial hernia, protrusion of the inner lining membrane through the stratum fibrosum of a joint capsule; called also Birkett's h.

tonsillar hernia, tonsillar herniation.

Treitz's hernia, hernia of the intestine through the superior duodenal recess; called also duodenojejunal h. and retroperitoneal h.

umbilical hernia, a type of abdominal hernia in which part of the intestine protrudes at the umbilicus and is covered with skin and subcutaneous tissue; cf. omphalocele. Called also exomphalos and exumbilication.

hernia u¢teri inguina¢lis, a common type of persistent müllerian duct syndrome.

uterine hernia, hernial protrusion of the uterus.

vaginal hernia, hernia into the vagina; called also colpocele and vaginocele.

vaginal hernia, posterior, downward protrusion of the pouch of Douglas, with its intestinal contents, between the posterior vaginal wall and the rectum; called also enterocele.

vaginolabial hernia, hernia of a viscus into the posterior end of the labium majus.

Velpeau's hernia, femoral hernia in front of the femoral vessels.

ventral hernia, abdominal h.

vesical hernia, protrusion of the bladder.

w hernia, retrograde h.

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